One of the most important sources has been writings and speeches of his son, the renowned poet, Faiz Ahmad Faiz. Oxford university press, USA sheds some light on the subject. Acknowledging his inherent capacity instantly, his village school teacher not only allowed him to attend his class but also encouraged him to continue studies. He progressed swiftly and passed his village school examinations in ahead of all the other children. He earned a scholarship of two rupees a month, of Education Department Govt.
High School at a distance from his village. He had to walk back and forth to school covering long distance during inclement weather. He passed High School examination in with distinction. During studies he assisted lawyers at the district Courts to pay for his expenses. Sultan Muhammad Khan had been good looking intelligent, polite young man. Easy going as he was earned him friends every where and he survived in all sorts of company.
After completing education at Sialkot in he continued higher education at Lahore and found abode free of cost in a local mosque. After his studies and return in the evening to the mosque instead of resting, he fulfilled any task apportioned to him. He was untiring to the extent that hard labour could not be lower his interest in education.
Sultan Muhammad Khan developed grip over Persian and English at school, in the evening he attended mosque to learn Arabic and religion. After Juma prayer, Sultan Muhammad Khan held conversation, both in Persian and English, with Afghan Councilor and immensely impressed him, this eventually led to his hiring by the Afghan Councilor to translate documents of Persian into English.
He used to come and pray in this mosque.
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It shall be taken into account that the Afghan Amir, at that time, was trying to establish closer links with the rulers in British India in order to consolidate his own rule in Afghanistan. Anyone who could assist in furthering this goal was welcomed as friend. Therefore, Afghan Councillor offered Sultan Muhammad Khan briskly an appointment to tutor his own household, in English, initially. The Amir offered him a job of translator in his court.
He was to translate documents and letters written in Afghan Persian henceforth, Dari of Amir into English and letters written in English to Amir into Dari. It may be safely assumed that anyone fluent in English and Dari, who could assist in mediation and negotiations with the British was considered a valuable asset by the Afghan rulers.
He ably performed the job of Royal interpreter conducted all correspondence and negotiations with the British. These were tumultuous times in Afghan history, rival competing powers, Czarist Russia and British India, both were busy in power game, intrigues and spreading rumours inside and outside Afghan court. There were rumours that Amir was severely ill and suffered from deadly disease which has adversely affected his mobility.
Relevant quarters, both internal and external, could be encouraged to depose him and replace by someone qualified better mentally and physically, to protect British interests in the region. Lilias Hamilton who recurrently attended the Amirduring ss. Sultan Muhammad, at the court of the Amir, met and befriended Dr. He wrote in shorthand every word uttered by Durand and myself, and this conversation is all preserved in the record office.
Hamilton a replacement of Dr. His hand caused substantial pain and the Amir had ordered many executions and confiscations of property. Thus, Sultan heeding her advice transferred all his wealth abroad through her and she became his finance minister. Alarmed,, in , sensing changed situation of the court,Sultan Muhammad Khan decided to flee Afghanistan. Upon arrival at Lahore, he was arrested by the British officials and put into jail. He was arrested as an Afghan spy and placed in custody in the same Lahore fort where Faiz Ahmad Faiz was to be imprisoned many years later.
One version, more widely believed that the increased trust of the Amir upon his Chief Secretary, invited jealousy and envy against him since he was not an ethnic Afghan and had no family or other connections within the court his wife, niece of the Amir, died within two years of his marriage.
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He fled Afghanistan following warning of intrigues against him and on advice of Dr. She agreed to transfer his accumulated wealth to London in her name. Whatever the situation, before There, in addition to his duties as the Ambassador of the Amir of Afghanistan to the British Court, he also got himself enrolled at Cambridge University to earn a law degree. British Indian Government on the other hand had been considering him an Afghan agent, a spy. It was only after his return to India a few years later that it was clear that he had been acting as the Amir's agent all the time. In April , Sultan facilitated his visit to Afghanistan to collect financial assistance for the Anjuman.
His salary and travel expenditures were paid by Afghan host. He served in this capacity for three years; and also completed his Bar at Law there. Sultan Muhammad continued his service as Ambassador after death of Amir during reign of new Amir Habibullah in too.
He began practice as a Barrister in London in and continued till He decided to return to his native village in , voyaged from England to Bombay and by train to Lahore and Sialkot. He had been in Sialkot and began practicing law and also married fifth time. His Afghan wives finally joined him in Sialkot too.
Youngest wife, barely older than some of his daughters was Sultan Fatima mother of Faiz was the daughter of a landowner in the nearby village of Jessar. Sultan Muhammad of Kala Kader, well acquainted wit British and Afghan aristocracy easialy moved in the British aristocracy much of his pictures, preserved by his successors are witness to it. The original version vol.
The professed aim of writing this book has been to compare private and constitutional laws of Afghanistan with advanced European countries. His research question has been how far laws and customs practiced in Afghanistan were based upon ancient oriental customs and Muhammadan law?see
He also tried to distinguish contribution of Amir Abdur Rahman in this regard. The manuscript is undated and preserved in the Mss[sic.
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Sultan Mahomed has simply incorporated its English translation in the so-called Autobiography of the Amir. In , Mr. Resultantly, he was never allowed to return to Kabul, despite the fact that he was tutor of Amir Habibullah Khan. Although, some Indian governmental circles considered Sultan Muhammad was sent abroad to spy for the Amir of Afghanistan.
Upon discovery that he worked for British Indian Government his own pupil Amir Habibullah Khan did not allow him to come back to Afghanistan. Sultan Muhammad Khan passed away in in Sialkot. It can be concluded that Sultan Muhammad Khan worked not only to preserve and strengthen independence of and stability in Afghanistan but also assisted in modernization of and promotion of constitutional rule in Afghanistan. Although, he was accused of being a spy of the British government, his services for the advancement of Afghanistan cannot be undermined.
Keeping in view his political and constitutional services, literary contribution, and his work as Mir Munshi Aala Chief Secretary especialy, during parleys of the Amir with British Mission to demarcte Afghan borders, and the trust Amir reposed in him testifies to the fact that he remained a friend of Afghanistan. This can be also substantiated by the fact that he was arrested by and jailed in Lahore Fort by the British Indian Government where later Faiz ahmed Faiz was jailed by the successor Pakistani government who opposed British an US imperialism in s.
Moreover, suffice to say that not only Amir Abdur Rahman who trusted him appointed him as Afghan Ambassador to England for three years but his successor Habibullah Khan, reposing confidence in him, also allowed him to continue as Ambassador till A painting of Dr. Ahmad, S. Centenary Celebrations of Faiz Ahmad Faiz. The Daily Dawn , Islamabad, dated Dupree, L.
Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, New Delhi.